Generation of Computers

Generation of computers

the different computing devices developed over the years can be categories into several generations. Each generation of computer is the result of a technological development   , which changes the way to operate computers

Computer can be categories into five generation:-

  1. First generation (1940 -1956)
  2. Second generation (1956- 1963)
  3. Third generation (1963- 1971)
  4. Fourth generation (1971 – 1980)
  5. Second generation (1980 – till date )

  1. First Generation Computer :


  • Vacuum tubes were used to build the circuitry for the computer. A vacuum tube was a device made up of glass and used filaments to generate electrons. It is used amplify the electronic signals.
  • Magnetic drum is used for the memory of computer.
  • Size of these computers was very large, single computer was used to cover the space of an entire room.
  • Consume high electricity and generated a large amount of heat.
  • Perform calculation in milliseconds.
  • They used machine language to perform operation
  • Takes Input from punch cards & paper tapes and display the results on paper as printouts.
  • ENIAC(Electronic numerical integrator and Calculator)
  • EDVAC (Electronic discrete variable automatic computer)
  •  UNIVAC (Universal Automatic Computer)

  1. Second Generation Computer :


  • Transistor was used instead of vacuum tubes. Transistor was smaller than vacuum tubes.
  • They consume less power and generate less amount of heat than vacuum tube.
  • Transistors were faster and more reliable than vacuum tubes.
  • Used assembly language instead of machine language.
  • Since transistors replaced vacuum tubes the size and cost associated with computer is decreased.
  • Takes Input from punch cards & paper tapes and display the results on paper as printouts.
  • IBM 1620, PDP8, CDC1604
  1. Third Generation Computer:


  • Integrated Circuit (IC) were used in this generation .An IC is a silicon- chip that embeds on electronic circuit, which comprises several components such as transistor, diode and registers.
  • The use of IC’s had increased the speed and efficiency of computer to a significant extent.
  • Keyboard and monitor is used as I/O and O/P device respectively.
  • Cheaper than the previous generation computer
  • IBM 370, PDP11.
  1. Fourth generation computer:


  • Large scale Integration (LSI) and  very large scale integration (VLSI) technology were used.
  • Use semiconductor memories instead of magnetic core memories.
  • Use graphical user interface (GUI)
  • Smaller and cheaper than the previous generation computer.
  • Use high level programming language.
  • personal computer (PC)
  1. Fifth Generation Computer:


  • Ultra large scale integration (ULSI) technology was used.
  • Portable in size
  • Does not require manual assembly of individual components.
  • Intel Pentium microprocessor chip.

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One thought on “Generation of Computers

  • 11/08/2015 at 8:23 PM

    ths was vry much useful to me


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